Evolution, 45: 218-221.  Males kill young to bring the female into estrus. Most black bears hibernate for up to seven months. Decker, D., W. Wozencraft. The preferred parts to eat are the brain and eggs. Vaughan, T., J. Ryan, N. Czaplewski. (Lawlor, 1979; Nowak, 1991; Vaughan, et al., 2000), Male and female bears generally associate only briefly for mating. bullae, which are not enlarged. Pre-weaning cub mortality was estimated at 10-30% in polar bears and sub-adult mortality at between 3 and 16%. Source: Smithsonian National Zoo Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes, Sun Bear - Helarctos malayanus For example, North American brown bears (Ursus arctos) may rely extensively on fruits and insect larvae throughout the year, or may prey extensively on calves during ungulate breeding seasons and on migrating fish. Classification, To cite this page: Source: Smithsonian National Zoo Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes, Sloth Bear - Melursus ursinus New York: Columbia University Press. , Bears are popular in children's stories, including Winnie the Pooh, Paddington Bear, Gentle Ben and "The Brown Bear of Norway".  For example, Asiatic black bears in Taiwan consume large numbers of acorns when these are most common, and switch to ungulates at other times of the year. Brown bears are solitary. Biology. at http://www.fws.gov/endangered/. Modern brown bears evolved from U. minimus via Ursus etruscus, which itself is ancestral to the extinct Pleistocene cave bear. There is no generally accepted classification of extinct ursid species. , Laws have been passed in many areas of the world to protect bears from habitat destruction. Ursus maritimus.  Other species may be nocturnal, active at night, though female sloth bears with cubs may feed more at daytime to avoid competition from conspecifics and nocturnal predators. Specific food types may vary by habitat or season. Twins are most common in bears, but up to five young may be produced. They are born with their eyes and ears closed and are either naked or with only a fine layer of fur. Director General, Cree Hunters and Trappers Income Security Board, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada. They are classified as caniforms , or doglike carnivorans. Source: Arkive Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: Yes. Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna, 2005.  During the breeding season, males take notice of females in their vicinity and females become more tolerant of males. Bark may be spread around to draw attention to the marking post. 1978. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Ursinae. American Museum Novitates, 2635: 1-25.  Around the world, many children—and some adults—have teddy bears, stuffed toys in the form of bears, named after the American statesman Theodore Roosevelt when in 1902 he had refused to shoot an American black bear tied to a tree. Bear attacks that seem at first to be unprovoked, often prove to be inadvertently provoked when investigated. The following species are on Appendix I of CITES: Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Helarctos malayanus, Melursus ursinus, Tremarctos ornatus, Ursus thibetanus, and populations of Ursus arctos in Bhutan, China, Mexico and Mongolia. (Flynn, et al., 2005; Nowak, 1991; Vaughan, et al., 2000), Bears are found on all continents except Antarctica and Australia, but are primarily found throughout the northern hemisphere, historically occurring as far south as the Atlas Mountains of northwestern Africa, the Andes of South America, and the Sunda shelf region. This is usually accompanied by clawing and biting the object. Bears are mammals within the order Carnivora of the divergent family Ursidae and are geographically widespread within North and South Americas, Europe, and Asia. Ursidae. In modern times, bears have come under pressure through encroachment on their habitats and illegal trade in bear parts, including the Asian bile bear market. Delayed implantation results in most births occurring in January or February.  In the McKenna and Bell classification both bears and pinnipeds in a parvorder of carnivoran mammals known as Ursida, along with the extinct bear dogs of the family Amphicyonidae. July 13, 2005 The Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries, which are home to around 30% of the wild panda population, gained a UNESCO World Heritage Site designation in 2006. Source: USDA Forest Service Intended Audience: General Reading Level: High School Teacher Section: No, American Black Bear - Ursus americanus  The sun bear's range extends below the equator in Southeast Asia.  Larger species tend to show increased levels of sexual dimorphism in comparison to smaller species. Two lineages evolved from U. minimus: the black bears (including the sun bear, the Asian black bear, and the American black bear); and the brown bears (which includes the polar bear). Kurten, B., E. Anderson.  The general dental formula for living bears is: The sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), also known as the honey bear, is a bear found primarily in the tropical rainforest (the dense lowland forests) in Southeast Asia; North-East India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Southern China, Peninsular Malaysia, and the islands of Sumatra and Borneo. World Status Key However, all bears feed on any food source that becomes seasonally available.  In poorer rural regions, attitudes may be more shaped by the dangers posed by bears, and the economic costs they cause to farmers and ranchers. Sexual maturity occurs at from to 3 to 6.5 years old, usually occurring later in males. Polar Bear - Ursus maritimus, Spectacled Bear -Tremarctos ornatus , In modern times, bears have come under pressure through encroachment on their habitats and illegal trade in bear parts, including the Asian bile bear market, though hunting is now banned, largely replaced by farming. The family Ursidae consists of eight extant species belonging to five genera in three subfamilies and divided into dozens of extant subspecies. Most bear populations continue to face hunting pressure and have become fragmented as a result of human habitat destruction and hunting. Females accompanied by their young may be especially aggresssive and unpredictable. They eat fruit, berries, seeds, small mammals, birds, eggs, fish, insects, reptiles, amphibians, and carrion. They are found in all parts of the world, except Antarctica and Australia. 2nd edition. The panda, in particular, spends 12–15 hours a day feeding. Source: PBS Nature Intended Audience: General Reading Level: Middle School Teacher Section: No, Polar Bear - Ursus maritimus They become lethargic and metabolize fat reserves accumulated during the summer and fall. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. Externally they have ticks, fleas and lice.